Communication is the activity of transmitting information using the interchange of thoughts, ideas and messages by means of speech, writing, visuals, behavior, or signals. The study of communication is vital for solving problems in professional life and improving relationships in personal life. Rhetorical studies played an important role in communication development. It is true that without rhetorical studies communication would not exist nowadays.
Rhetoric emerged in 5th century B.C. It is the study and practice of communication that informs, inspires, entertains or encourages the target audience. It is generally a tactical use of communication to fulfill aims with the target audience. It can be utilized for both ethical and unethical purposes. The first philosophers of rhetoric, Plato and Socrates, were criticizing its narrowness and superficiality. Moreover, some critics considered rhetoric as a danger to moral values, truth and justice since they were confident that it could easily manipulate people's mind and behavior. On the contrary, the supporters of rhetoric were positive about the fact that it is the most remarkable art humans could ever acquire. Even today, there are some controversial points about rhetoric, for instance, cases with presidential elections. Many politicians use rhetoric techniques to make people believe in their words; however, after the elections they forget to keep their promises (Sharon, Hawhee, 2004).
According to Aristotle, there were three genres of rhetoric:
Judicial rhetoric concerns law courts, legal prosecution and defense. Deliberative rhetoric takes place where the audience is asked to adjudicate an act in the future. Finally, epideictic rhetoric is an approval or deprecation of a person or institution.
Apart from genres of rhetoric, there also existed a rhetorical triangle. Logos, ethos and pathos were the three vital components used in every means of communication. With the help of these three parts, people were able to create texts that appealed to readers. Indeed, as far as Aristotle was concerned, the ability of a speaker to convince the audience was dependent on logos, ethos and pathos. Moreover, he believed that by observing a world around, people can realize how communication is happening and use these methods to develop convincing arguments. Logos is inclined to reason. It can be perceived as a text of argument. Ethos is connected to the writer's character. It expresses the part of the writer in an argument and the plausibility of the argument. Pathos appeals to the feelings, sensitive creativity, faith, and also benefits. Pathos usually plays the role of the audience in the argument. The rhetorical triangle is an equilateral figure that ensures logos, ethos and pathos to be balanced within the whole text or speech (Sharon, Hawhee, 2004).
Nowadays, most people apply to rhetoric without consciously understanding or studying it. Just because a vast majority of people used to depict it as an empty, false and manipulative tool, they disregard, avoid and blame it for almost all difficulties in the world. Nevertheless, a thumping majority still considers rhetoric as a human art that produces truth, beauty and mutual understanding. It sometimes happens that people refuse to admit that they are using rhetoric. According to researchers, the most powerful and important forms of rhetoric are those that cover up their own intentions and tactics.
In order to reach a desirable purpose of communication, logos, ethos and pathos need to be present. It is crucial to know that communication is derived from the Latin word communicare,which means to make common or to share.It is true that people tend toproduce a common meaning with the help of message they provide. Meaning is the understanding of the message. Communication refers to everything a person plans, thinks, imagines, understands, persuades, controls and loves. There must be three obligatory components in the process of communication: the speaker, the audience and the message. The speaker brings a professional element and experience to the communicational process. To be an effective speaker, it is important to know who the target audience is. No less important is the message to the audience. The speaker should first report who, what, when, where, why and how in order to keep the interest of the audience tight. However, a message can be verbal and non-verbal form of the idea, thought or feeling (Rosenbaum, 2005).
Human communication can exist on three levels: intrapersonal, interpersonal and public. Intrapersonal communication is communicating with oneself. It refers to personal decision-making, thoughts, listening, and setting a self-concept. Interpersonal communication turns up amidst two or more people who are trying to set up communicative relationships. Interpersonal communication involves face-to-face and indirect conversation, interview and discussion in small groups. Public communication refers to speakers who send a message to the audience. It can be direct, when speaker perform a face-to-face message, and indirect, when a message is transmitted via the radio or television (Rosenbaum, 2005).
Having all things considered, rhetoric and communication are devices that are interrelated. While rhetoric is an art of speaking or writing effectively, communication is a process of sending and receiving the message. While rhetoric is a study of techniques and rules for using language effectively, communication is directly a utilization of these techniques and rules for performing a process of speech. Rhetoric and communication were created in order to reach the primary aims of the language: inform, persuade and entertain.